Almost everyone is familiar with magnets because they often played with them as children or used them at school to hold subject material on boards. Today, magnets are almost ubiquitous, and they are an important part of all kinds of electronic equipment, motors, generators, transformers. Many times, magnets are used to make clips, stands, souvenirs and toys.
The most powerful neodymium magnet, which are made of a special alloy whose structure includes boron, iron, and neodymium. It is these elements that predetermine their strengths and weaknesses compared to magnets made of other materials. Today, neodymium magnets are replacing standard ferrite magnets everywhere and are being used more and more.
What is a Neodymium Magnet
These are extremely powerful magnets made of rare earth metals. Also known as New Magnet, NIB or NdFeB. In most cases, it is an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron, forming the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystal structure.
They are characterized by strong resistance to demagnetization.
They are very attractive.
They have a metallic look.
They are in great demand and are used in various fields of electronics, industry, medicine and everyday life.
The first countries to master the production of neodymium magnets were Japan and the United States. It is the potential for active development in these countries that has stimulated the emergence of new technologies for the manufacture of permanent magnets. In 1982, General Motors worked with Sumitomo Special Metals to develop the first neodymium magnet. Currently, these are the strongest permanent magnets of all commercially available permanent magnets. The magnetic energy value of the magnet is more than 18 times that of the ordinary magnet.
Bor / Iron / Neodymium.
The last element in the new alloy composition belongs to the rare earth element, which plays a major role in the alloy composition. The boron content in the alloy is negligible, while iron is a binding element.
Due to this composition, magnets have incredibly high adhesion. Compared to them, the ferrite magnets in this indicator are simply not comparable. For example, if you connect two strong ferrite rings to each other, with some effort you can separate them by hand. With neodymium magnets, this simply doesn’t work. The two interconnected neodymium magnets cannot be unraveled by hand without using the device.
The price of the first neodymium magnets sold in the mid-1990s was quite high. Currently, their cost has come down but is still high. This is mainly due to the relative rarity of neodymium.
Neodymium magnets come in a wide variety of brands and shapes. The different forms of neodymium magnets result from their different uses. They can thus be in the form of cones, cylinders, rings, spheres, spheres, rectangles, disks, etc. Using the composition of neodymium magnets, it is also possible to create magnetic plastic materials. For example, it’s magnetic vinyl.
Magnets can be divided into:
range of working temperature.
Depending on the brand, magnets have different operating temperature ranges:
Class N (Normal) – Up to 80 C, i.e. at normal temperature.
M (Medium) – up to 100 C, i.e. at high temperatures.
H (High) – Up to 120 C, i.e. at high temperature.
SH (Super High) – Up to 150 C.
UH (Ultra High) – Up to 180 C.
EH (Extra High) – Up to 200 C.
The numbers indicated in the name of the magnet category: 40UH, 38SH, 33M, N30, etc., represent the magnetic energy in kilojoules/cubic meter. This standard is responsible for the power that needs to be applied to the magnet to produce separation from the surface, the “peel force”. The higher the magnet size, the greater the pull-off force.
At the same time, the “pull force” will also depend on the weight and size of the magnet. For example, it is an order of magnitude easier to tear a 25 x 20 mm magnet from a steel plate than a 40 x 5 mm magnet.
Magnets are also divided into several categories considering the magnitude of the magnetic moment per unit volume. Classification of Neodymium Magnets:
When using neodymium magnets, their characteristics should be considered.
If you buy a magnet from a professional neodymium magnet supplier. Your neodymium magnets have a long service time of at least 30 years and can be extended by an order of magnitude if used and stored properly. But under certain conditions, they can easily be disabled and destroy them irreparably. Neodymium magnets are completely inflexible. They can break under certain loads and even rupture, including losing their properties.
Dropping or bumping the magnet can cause the magnet particles to break, potentially resulting in poor traction. Furthermore, a sufficiently strong shock can cause a loss of magnet properties. Therefore, neodymium magnets should be avoided from falling, including where parts and components may collide with each other or fall.
When exposed to high temperatures, the magnet’s magnetic properties are irretrievably lost. Depending on the current magnet brand, the heating limit can be in the range of 80-250 degrees Celsius. If the magnet is heated above standard temperature, all properties are lost. The self-demagnetization of neodymium magnets is about 1% in 10 years. This number is quite high.
Machining neodymium magnets is nearly impossible. When creating a series of magnet samples after purchase for a purpose, it is practically impossible to give the magnets any other shape. This is because drilling, cutting or grinding the alloy with a cutting tool can cause the alloy to catch fire. High temperatures, including those released during friction, can have a detrimental effect on the magnet itself and its properties.
Neodymium magnets are widely used in industry, they are used in various experiments and experiments in the fields of electrical engineering and physics:
Powerful magnets come with filters that trap small metal particles in liquids or gases.
Neodymium alloy magnets can also be used to make souvenirs and toys.
Magnets, due to their high adhesion, are used to find metallic objects located underground. Today, they are actively used by search engines engaged in the restoration of wartime equipment.
Neodymium alloys are used in the manufacture of magnetic fasteners for securing various objects.
Connecting parts for metal structures: robust, but easily dismantled if necessary.
For fixing blinds, curtains and other window-related elements.
Create suspended interior objects, furniture. Recently, a lot of designers, and even regular creatives, are using neodymium magnets to make their tables, coasters, trays, beds really fly.
Create Free Energy Generators, Tesla Generators, Solenoid Valves, Searle Generators, Magnetic Tunnels, Magnetic Coupling and Hall Sensors. The Large Hadron Collider uses advanced magnets.
Magnets are widely used in medicine, such as in magnetic resonance imaging machines, and to relieve pain from arthritis.
Neodymium magnets can be used in a variety of household applications, from plumbing to attaching photos or calendars to refrigerators.
Magnets are used to make computer hard drives.
Smooths out small scratches and dents on instruments and parts. Just install a powerful neodymium magnet on one side of the part and a large steel ball on the other side is enough.
Purifies automotive technical fluids and oils from foreign metal particles and impurities that cause engine wear.
Magnetization of water. Many doctors recommend drinking magnetically treated water to boost immunity and improve health.
Magnets are used to make light, compact but very powerful generators such as wind turbines, hydroelectric power plants and other alternative energy facilities.
Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages of neodymium magnets include:
The attractive force is dozens of times that of traditional magnets.
Large manufacturers have demand for them, but they can also be purchased for home use. Magnets are sold in specialty stores and regular online stores.
Since the power is quite large, it will not demagnetize for a long time. Over 10 years, only 1% demagnetization has occurred.
Possibility for wide application in various industries.
Lightweight and compact in size compared to other magnets with the same adhesion.
Disadvantages of neodymium magnets include:
Neodymium magnets can be dangerous to health and surrounding products in inexperienced and inept hands. They can damage the upholstery of metal furniture, cars and even walls. They should not be given to children.
The magnets are hard to disengage, which is a big disadvantage in some cases.
Negatively affect the operation of electronic equipment.
Neodymium magnets cannot withstand strong drops and shocks.
It loses its properties at relatively high temperatures.